Period of extreme anxiety and physical
symptoms such as heart palpitations, shakiness,
dizziness, and racing thoughts. Initial
attacks are often reported to feel like a heart
attack due to the heart palpitations. A
medical exam should be conducted to rule out any
The correlation coefficient determined by comparing the scores of the two similar measuring devices (or forms of the same test) administered to the same people at one time.
A summary value of a specific population characteristic (e.g., mean age, standard deviation of IQ’s, median income)
subsystem of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) that
returns the body to homeostasis.
of four lobes of the brain. Contains the Somatosensory
Cortex d is therefore involved in the processing of
touch, pressure, temperature, and pain.
life experience considered paramount due to the
feeling of unity with the world.
correlation statistic used primarily for two sets of data that are of the ratio or interval scale. The most commonly used correlational technique.
Psychoanalytic Thought, the desire of girls to posses
a penis and therefore have the power that being male
Percentage of scores falling at or below a specific score. A percentile rank of 95 means that 95% of all of the scores fall at or below this point. In other words, the score is as good as or better than 95% of the scores.
The process of
organizing and using information that is received
through the senses.
ability to perceive objects as unchanged despite
the change noticed by the senses (e.g., the
ability to understand and see buildings as
remaining the same height even though they appear
larger as we get closer to them).
A correlation of either +1.0 or -1.0. A perfect correlation is extremely rare and when it
occurs means that predicting one score based on another score is perfect or without error.
The therapeutic technique based on
humanistic theory which is non-directive and
The stable set of individual characteristics that
make us unique.
maladaptive and stable set of individual
characteristics that cluster to form a recognized
Parenting style consisting of very few
rules and allowing children to make most decisions
and control their own behavior.
The deliberate attempt to influence the
thoughts, feelings or behaviors of another.
from the Phallic stage, a child who becomes
fixated may develop a personality characterized by
selfishness, impulsivity, and a lack of or reduced
ability to feel empathy.
third stage of psychosexual development where the
primary sexual focus is on symbolism of the genitals.
A correlational technique used when both variables are binary (Example
true/false, yes/no, or on/off)
perception of motion based on two or more stationary
objects (e.g., the perception of chaser lights brought
about by different lights blinking at different
An intense fear of a specific object or
situation. Most of us consider ourselves to
have phobias, but to be diagnosable, the fear must
significantly restrict our way of life.
treatment condition used to control for the
placebo effect where the treatment has no real
effect on its own.
The phenomenon in research where the
subject’s beliefs about the outcome can
significantly effect the outcome without any other
The ability of the brain, especially in our
younger years to compensate for damage.
curve or distribution of scores that has a lot of variance
Freud’s theory regarding the id’s
desire to maximize pleasure and minimize pain in
order to achieve immediate gratification.
A correlational technique used when one variable is numeric and the other is binary (Example age and sex or income and
Estimating the population statistic based on a single sample statistic.
of the brain that plays a role in the regulation
of states of arousal, including sleep and
The entire group
to which research is hoping to generalize
(e.g., males, adults, U.S. citizens).
The true mean of the entire population often estimated using the sample mean. Abbreviated with the lowercase Greek letter
The true standard deviation of the population often estimated by using the sample standard deviation. Often abbreviated with the lowercase Greek letter sigma.
A correlation where as one variable increases, the
other also increases, or as one decreases so does
the other. Both variables move in the same
Something positive provided after a response in
order to increase the probability of that response
occurring in the future.
curve or distribution of scores that has extreme scores above the mean that are atypical of the majority of scores
The strength or the data to find a difference when there truly is a difference. Power is abbreviated with the capital
Greek letter beta (b).
measurements ability to predict scores on another measurement that is related or purports to measure the same or similar construct
Negative beliefs, attitudes, or feelings about a
person's entire character based on only one
characteristic. This belief is often based
on faulty information.
second stage of cognitive development in which a child
develops objects permanency and language.
A method of determining the amount of change that occurred in a set of data by measuring the data prior to treatment and then after treatment and comparing the two measurement outcomes.
The tendency to remember the first bit of
information in a series due to increased
A reinforcer that
meets our basic needs such as food, water, sleep,
in memory due to prior learning.
likelihood that error caused the results of data analysis. If the probability of error is greater than the predetermined acceptable level of error then the results are said to be 'not significant.'
Also called representative samples, a probability sample consists of characteristics that are close to the population that they represent.
In Psychoanalytic Theory, the defense
mechanism whereby we transfer or project our
feelings about one person onto another.
A generic term for the psychological
procedures used to measure personality which rely
on ambiguous stimuli.
medical doctor with training in mental illness.
Sigmund Freud, this type of therapy is known for
long term treatment, typically several times per
week, where the unresolved issues from the
individual's childhood are analyzed and resolved.
These issues are considered to be primarily
unconscious in nature and are kept from
consciousness through a complex defense system.
developed by Freud consisting of the structural model
of personality, topographical model of personality,
defense mechanisms, drives, and the psychosexual
stages of development. The primary driving force
behind the theory is the id, ego and superego and the
division of consciousness into the conscious mind, the
pre/subconscious, and the unconscious.
A modern adaptation of psychoanalytic
therapy which has made sometimes minor and
sometimes major changes to Freud's original
treatment of mental illness or related issues based on
The study of emotion, cognition, and
behavior, and their interaction.
Break from reality, usually
identified by hallucinations, delusions, and/or
medication used primarily to treat mental illness.
adding of a negative stimulus in order to decrease
a response (e.g., spanking a child to decrease