used for the Pearson-product moment correlation (correlation
subjects to experimental groups based on chance.
A group of
subjects representing the population who are
selected through chance.
the difference between the highest and lowest score in a distribution (often 1 is added to the result when computing
statistics to allow for the 0.5 on either end lost
due to rounding).
table consisting of data in order of highest to lowest or lowest to highest where each data is given a numbered rank depicting it's difference from the highest or lowest score
Any scale of measurement possessing magnitude, equal intervals, and an absolute zero
Rational Emotive Therapy
A Cognitive Therapy based on Albert
Ellis' theory that cognitions control our emotions
and behaviors; therefore, changing the way we
think about things will affect the way we feel and
the way we behave.
mechanism where one believes or states an
acceptable explanation for a behavior as opposed
to the real explanation.
The initial data gathered that has not yet been graphed, organized, or analyzed.
mechanism where unacceptable impulses are
converted to their opposite.
the Freud, the attempt by the ego to satisfy both the
id and the superego while still considering the
reality of the situation.
The tendency to
remember the last bit of information due to the
shorter time available for forgetting.
Tendency to fill in the gaps in our memory and
often believe these represent true memories.
Power given to an individual due to respect
and/or desire to be similar to that individual.
therapeutic technique in humanistic therapy where the
feelings and thoughts of the client are reflected or
reworded back to the client to assist in understanding
Used with a correlation to determine a regression equation that predicts or estimates a persons score on one variable if the other is known.
information in order to improve our recall of this
that follows a behavior that increases the chances
of that behavior occurring again.
mechanism where one reverts to an earlier stage of
A statistical measure of a tests
consistency, or ability to result in similar
scores if given repeatedly.
The correlation coefficient is called the reliability coefficient when a correlation is used to determine or estimate reliability.
strength of a research study is only as good as its ability to be replicated. In other words, if a study has significant
results but can not be done again, it is difficult to assess whether it was a good study or a result of error.
A sample or subgroup of the population that
possesses the same characteristics of the population
A rule of
thumb where similarity to a prototype or similar
situation dictates a decision.
Theory, the defense mechanism whereby our thoughts
are pulled out of our consciousness and into our
psychoanalysis, the client's refusal to
participate in a therapeutic intervention due to
underlying issues unrelated to the intervention.
therapeutic technique where stimuli is presented
to the client but the client is not permitted to
exercise his or her typical response. Used
for the treatment of phobias, obsessive compulsive
disorder and other anxiety disorders.
Formation (Reticular Activating System)
of the brain stem involved in arousal and
attention, sleep and wakefulness, and control of
binocular cue to distance referring to the
distance between the two images sent to the brain
by our eyes. The farther apart these images,
the closer the object.
of bringing material out of long term memory and
in memory created by later learning.
Any single subject
design that includes the removal of treatment to
determine if the subject reverts to baseline (ex. ABA,
child's ability to reverse operations and therefore
recognize that the qualities of an object remain the
same despite changes in appearance. Occurs in
Piaget's Concrete Operational Stage of Cognitive
Development (e.g., 1+2=3 to 3-2=1).
Power derived through an ability to offer rewards.
humanistic Psychologist who developed
projective technique utilizing ambiguous inkblots