appears to be much more common in females, but little is understood about
the etiology. There is also some association with other disorders such as
depression and anxiety.
involves the failure to resist impulses to steal things that are not
needed for either personal use or for their monetary value. There is
typically anxiety prior to the act of theft and relief or gratification
afterward. If the theft is related to vengeance or psychosis, kleptomania
should not be diagnosed. (Kleptomania is quite rare, where common
shoplifting is not).
typically involves behavior modification. Other treatment approaches
involve seeing the theft as an unconscious process and analyzing it as
such may assist in gaining insight and eventually extinguishing the
is fair, but can increase with a positive therapeutic relationship and a
strong motivation to change the behavior. Kleptomania often goes untreated
and results in legal difficulties.