is evidence that genetic factors play a role in both dependence and abuse.
Other theories involve the use of substances as a means to cover up or get
relief from other problems (e.g., psychosis, relationship issues, stress),
which makes the dependence or abuse more of a symptom than a disorder in
pattern of substance use leading to significant impairment in functioning.
One of the following must be present within a 12 month period: (1)
recurrent use resulting in a failure to fulfill major obligations at work,
school, or home; (2) recurrent use in situations which are physically
hazardous (e.g., driving while intoxicated); (3) legal problems resulting
from recurrent use; or (4) continued use despite significant social or
interpersonal problems caused by the substance use. The symptoms do not
meet the criteria for substance dependence as abuse is a part of this
suggests that no treatment method is superior, but that social support is
very important. An openness to accept the abuse is also paramount in
successfully treating the illness. Organizations such as AA and NA
have had better than average success in reducing relapse.
Both substance abuse and dependence is difficult to treat and often
involves a cycle of abstinence from the substance and substance use.