is evidence that genetic factors play a role in both dependence and abuse.
Other theories involve the use of substances as a means to cover up or get
relief from other problems (e.g., psychosis, relationship issues, stress),
which makes the dependence or abuse more of a symptom than a disorder in
use history which includes the following: (1) substance abuse (see below);
(2) continuation of use despite related problems; (3) increase in
tolerance (more of the drug is needed to achieve the same effect); and (4)
treatment may need to be administered due to the dangerousness of some
withdrawal symptoms. Research suggests that no treatment method is
superior, but that social support is very important. Organizations
such as AA and NA have had better than average success in reducing
Both substance abuse and dependence is difficult to treat and often
involves a cycle of abstinence from the substance and substance use.