1: Introduction to Neo-Freudian Theory
2: Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology
3: Carl Jung's Analytic Psychology
4: Erik Erikson's Ego Psychology
5: Karen Horney's Feminine Psychology
6: Harry Stack Sullivan
7: Erich Fromm
Jung's break from Freud's Psychoanalytic Society
was perhaps the most disappointing for Freud.
When they met it is reported that they spent over 12
hours discussing psychoanalytic theory, and soon
after, Jung became the logical successor to the
society. Although he served as the society's
first president, he resigned from the organization
in 1914 after intense disagreements with his mentor.
main disagreement he had with Freud was his belief
that there was more to the unconscious than Freud
theorized. Jung believed that there were
fears, behaviors, and thoughts that children
and adults exhibit that are remarkably similar
across time and culture. He believed that this
was more than coincidence and represented what he
called the collective unconscious.
newly formed school of thought, Analytic Psychology,
theorized about how this collective unconscious
influences personality. He argued that it was
made up of what he termed archetypes which
are primordial images inherited from our
ancestors. As support for such a theory, he
spoke of the immediate attachment infants have for
their mother, the inevitable fear of the dark seen
in young children, and how images such as the sun,
moon, wise old man, angels, and evil all seem to be
predominate themes throughout history.
his view, infants are drawn to their mother because
of the unconscious image of mother that is alive in
all of us and that we fear the dark because of the
unconscious image of darkness. Although he
described many archetypes in his writings, there are
a few that have received a lot of attention and
thought. These include the animus/anima, the
shadow, and the self.
animus is the masculine side of the female and the
anima is the feminine side of the male. This
expands on Freud's writings that we are all born
bisexual and develop normal sexual attraction
through our psychosexual development.
According to Jung, we all have an unconscious
opposite gender hidden within us and the role of
this archetype is to guide us toward the perfect
mate. In other words, we project our
animus/anima onto others as they project theirs onto
us. When a match is made, we have found a
archetype is called the shadow which is basically
the unconscious negative or dark side of our
personality. The shadow, like all other
archetypes, is passed down through history and given
different names depending on time and culture.
In Judeo-Christian writings, according to Jung, the
shadow archetype is called the Devil.
the self archetype is the unifying part of all of us
that finds balance in our lives. Working with
the ego (which is partly in our personal
unconscious), it helps us manage the other
archetypes and helps us feel complete.
his writings are poetic at times and nearly
impossible to follow at others, the remarkable way
his theories blend with myths, folklore, and legends
has kept his theories alive. Are his
archetypes nothing more than naturally born
instincts or are they an unconscious representation
of our long dead ancestors? Many argue that
Jung has pieced together an important, and
previously missing, explanation of these personality
aspects that we all share.