1: Introduction to Learning Theory and Behavioral
2: Classical and Operant Conditioning
3: Reinforcement and Reinforcement Schedules
4: Social Learning Theory
5: Social-Cognitive Theory
Rotter, Albert Bandura also saw problems with the
traditional behaviorist's view of personality.
He argued that some behaviors that we exhibit are
strictly human behaviors and that studying animals
can never give us a compete understanding of human
nature. The one major difference between human
and lower animals, according to Bandura, is our
advanced ability to process information.
theory, known now as Social-Cognitive Theory, states
that two aspects of human nature determine behavior:
internal and external. He called these reciprocal
determinants of behavior because they act together
and can not be separated. Since the outcome of
our internal and external determinants can also influence
future behavior, Bandura believed that these three
aspects make up his model.
argued that learning can take place without actually
exhibiting a change in behavior. Unlike
behaviorists, who believe no learning takes place
without a change in behavior, he felt that we could
actually observe others, read books, hear stories
and learn information that is stored for future
use. This phenomenon is known as observational
learning. Like the rest of his theory, even
though we don't perform the activity we learned, we
still maintain both an internal and external belief
about the outcome of that activity. If we see
the outcome as negative, even though we may be
wrong, we are less likely to engage in it.
has indicated that there is support for this concept.
In his classic experiment, Bandura (1965) looked at
the behavior of children after watching a model on
TV perform aggressive acts. The children were
divided into three groups; model rewarded, model
punished, and no consequence, referring to the
outcome of these aggressive acts. As he
expected, all of the children were able to perform
the aggressive acts even though they had never
performed them or been rewarded for them in the
past. However, those who witnessed the aggressive
model being punished exhibited less aggressive acts
themselves in the play time that followed.