1: Introduction to Development, Personality, and Stage Theories
2: Motor and Cognitive Development
Section 3: Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development
Section 4: Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development
5: Freud's Structural and Topographical Model
6: Freud's Ego Defense Mechanisms
Section 7: Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development
Although it has been questioned as to whether
it applied equally to different genders and different cultures, Kohlberg’s
(1973) stages of moral development is the most widely cited. It breaks our
development of morality into three levels, each of which is divided further
into two stages:
Preconventional Level (up to age nine):
1. Morality is defined as obeying rules and
avoiding negative consequences. Children in this stage see rules set,
typically by parents, as defining moral law.
2. That which satisfies the child’s needs
is seen as good and moral.
Conventional Level (age nine to adolescence):
3. Children begin to understand what is
expected of them by their parents, teacher, etc. Morality is seen as
achieving these expectations.
4. Fulfilling obligations as well as
following expectations are seen as moral law for children in this stage.
Postconventional Level (adulthood):
5. As adults, we begin to understand that
people have different opinions about morality and that rules and laws vary
from group to group and culture to culture. Morality is seen as upholding
the values of your group or culture.
6. Understanding your own personal beliefs
allow adults to judge themselves and others based upon higher levels of
morality. In this stage what is right and wrong is based upon the
circumstances surrounding an action. Basics of morality are the foundation
with independent thought playing an important role.
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