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Threats to Internal Validity

  1. Placebo Effect
    • Subjects beliefs about the potential outcome or beliefs about what should occur can greatly influence their behavior. This can also occur when a subject is knowingly in the control group and either tries harder or gives up because of this.
  2. Experimenter Bias
    • Experimenters, those administering the treatment, can bias the results knowingly and unknowingly depending on their beliefs about the results and their stake in the results.