two young beautiful girlfriendsEtiology

Theories suggest that childhood issues may play a role in this disorder, such as the parent-child relationship at an early age and the identification a child is able to make with the parents of the same gender.


A strong and persistent identification with the opposite gender. There is a sense of discomfort in their own gender and may feel they were ‘born the wrong sex.’ This has been confused with cross-dressing or Transvestic Fetishism, but all are distinct diagnoses.


Other disorders may be present with this one, including depression, anxiety, relationship difficulties, and personality disorders, and homosexuality is present in a majority of the cases. Treatment is likely to be long-term with small gains made on underlying issues as treatment progresses.


Mixed. The goals of treatment are not as clear as in other disorders, as same-sex identification may be very difficult to achieve. More achievable goals may include acceptance of assigned gender and resolution of other difficulties such as depression or anxiety.