In Psychoanalytical theory, the part of the personality which contains our primitive impulses such as sex, anger, and hunger.
Humanistic term representing the characteristics, behaviors, emotions, and thoughts to which a person aspires.
Misperception of reality (e.g., the illusion of a lake in the middle of a desert).
Utilizing the mind to create a mental representation of a sensory experience.
Expressing contradictory behavior when describing or experiencing an emotion (e.g., smiling when discussing something sad; laughing when talking about the death of a loved one).
Sample data that is independent or not related to each other.
The variable in an experiment that is manipulated or compared.
Decision making process in which ideas are processed from the specific to the general.
The area or specialty in psychology focused on the application of psychological principles in the work force.
The branch of statistics that focuses on describing in numerical format what might be happening or what might happen (estimation) in the future (probability). Inferential statistics required the testing of only a sample of the population. (Example: 100 students rather than all students).
Substances such as spray paint, freon, and glue that produce an intoxicating effect when inhaled.
Occurring without learning, inborn.
A legal term representing the inability to know right from wrong or the inability to understand the consequences of one’s actions.
The understanding of a relationship between current thoughts, feelings, and/or behaviors and where these originated or how they are maintained.
A behavior we are born with and therefore does not need to be learned.
The degree to which one can adapt to one’s environment.
Intelligence Quotient [IQ]
The scores achieved on psychological tests aimed at quantifying intellectual ability.
When the effect of one variable on another is contingent on a third variable, this contingency is called an interaction effect.
An estimate of how reliable a test is when items on the test are compared to each other. See split-half and odd-even reliability.
Internal Locus of Control
The belief that an individual has more control over life circumstances than the environment does.
A measure of the trustworthiness of a sample of data. Internal validity looks at the subject, testing, and environment in which the data collection took place.
The difference between the scores (or estimated scores) at the 75th percentile and the 25th percentile. Used more than the range because it eliminates extreme scores.
Estimating the population statistic based on a range around a sample statistic.
Any scale of measurement possessing magnitude and equal intervals, but not an absolute zero.
A subjective personality and mental health assessment typically consisting of questions and answers.
The motivation or desire to do something based on the enjoyment of the behavior itself rather than relying on or requiring external reinforcement.
The process of examining one’s own consciousness.
The tendency to focus energy inward resulting in decreased social interaction.